Sunday, September 26, 2010

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Media Lecture One

Historical background to mass media in the Commonwealth of Nations

- Popular media in Commonwealth countries today (reading and listening exercises)

- Children’s media in Commonwealth countries

- Control and censorship of media in the Commonwealth

Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation newspapers and magazines, although mass media (like books and manuscripts) were present centuries before the term became common. The term public media has a similar meaning: it is the sum of the public mass distributors of news and entertainment across media such as newspapers, television, radio, broadcasting, which may require union membership in some large markets such as Newspaper Guild, AFTRA, & text publishers. The concept of mass media is complicated in some internet media as now individuals have a means of potential exposure on a scale comparable to what was previously restricted to select group of mass media producers. These internet media can include web TV and radio, personal web pages, message boards, podcasts, blogs, video hosting services.

Work through the following key terms and concepts in your groups using the course compendium and related materials:

  • British model of broadcast media
  • Mass media in India
  • Regulation of media
  • Mass Media in Australia
  • Censorship
  • Mass Media in South Africa

Mass media is part of globalisation, government, education and popular culture. Like these areas of of human and cultural interaction, media is complicated. Think about your own relationship to media, how you use it and how it effects you.

In this lecture I am am going to talk about some of the media systems in the countries we have been dealing with in the course. There are once again great similarities between each of the nations in their structures of media. But there are great differences in how media is integrated into peoples lives in each state.


Reporters without Borders worldwide press freedom ranking for 2007: 24th The history of media in England is a very long one. The first commercial modern newspapers were published in England in the 18th century. I want to just summarise a few points here in regards to England that are relevant to the rest of the course in terms of media.

The British Model of Broadcast Media

The model for broadcast media that was first established in the United Kingdom in the first decades of the Twentieth century became a model for many parts of the British Empire and later the Commonwealth of nations. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was the world's first national broadcasting organisation and was founded on 18 October 1922 as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd; It was subsequently granted a Royal Charter and was made a publicly funded corporation in 1927. The Royal Charter decreed that the BBC's views be entirely independent of any private or governmental influence. It is thereby required to "be free from both political and commercial influence and answer only to its viewers and listeners". According to its Charter, the BBC's mission is "to enrich people's lives with programmes and services that inform, educate and entertain." (see

The influence of a large and powerful institution such as the BBC on media activities as news gathering and programming structures is extensive. In South Africa, India, and Australia the main public broadcaster, with the possible exception of India due to its large number of regional languages and media outlets, exerts a large degree of influence on the overall broadcast media landscape. In Australia, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), Doordarshan in India and the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) each follow similar forms to the BBC. Each occupies a defining position in the mass media of their respective nations. Each is administered under government legislation, although unlike the BBC Doorsharshan does not have an independent editorial control. Prasar Bharati, its parent body has all board members appointed by the Government of India acting through the Information and Broadcasting Ministry. This control is evident in a budget that allows expenditure on "propaganda and public relations". The ABC Board of Directors is directly appointed by the Fderal government of Australia. The SABC Board of Directors is also appointed by the South African Government. In July 2009 the SABC Board was dissolved by then acting President Kgalema Motlanthe.

Mass Media in the United Kingdom/England
The United Kingdom has an extremely diverse media with an almost unrivalled number of outlets, second only to the United States.

Television in the UK
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List of Media Sites for the United Kingdom.
Listing websites, addresses, telephone numbers, live links and more for all areas of the online media, it's your one-stop media portal. Continually updated with 50 updates over the past week, we currently list 836 radio stations, 512 television channels, 1,596 newspapers, and 1,931 magazines.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
The BBC is the model public service media network for many countries that once belonged to the British Empire. Content from the BBC features heavily on the ABC in Australia. With the establishment of cable and satellite television the BBC is a world leader in the field. The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known simply as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers and revenue. It has 26,000 employees in the United Kingdom alone and a budget of more than £4 billion. Founded on 18 October 1922 as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd, it was subsequently granted a Royal Charter and made a state-owned corporation in 1927. The corporation produces programmes and information services, broadcasting globally on television, radio, and the internet. The stated mission of the BBC is "to inform, educate and entertain"; its motto is "Nation Shall Speak Peace Unto Nation". The BBC is a quasi-autonomous Public Corporation operating as a public service broadcaster. The Corporation is run by the BBC Trust; and is, per its charter, "free from both political and commercial influence and answers only to its viewers and listeners". Wikipedia

The Digital Divide in England (2007)
n 2005 there was a twelve percentage point gap between the number of adults with broadband at home in Northern Ireland (lowest at 24%), Wales (25%), Scotland (31%) and England (highest at 36%). This year’s report shows that by 2006 this gap had reduced to three percentage points. Take-up in England stood at 45% and in Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales had reached 42%.
In 2005 the gap between the nations in terms of digital television take-up was even larger at 19 percentage points ( Wales at 72%, England at 66%, Scotland at 60% and NI at 53%). By 2006 this gap had reduced to 13 percentage points (Wales at 82%, England at 75%, Scotland at 76% and NI at 69%).

Childrens's Media in England

The Magic Roundabout (1971)

Children's BBC

Danger Mouse

Blue Peter 1978

The Wombles

The Tomorrow People (1973)

Basil Brush

Basil Brush and Rolf Harris

Grange Hill

Doctor Who


Reporters without Borders worldwide press freedom ranking for 2007: 120th

Indian media—initiated since the late 1700s with print media started in 1780, radio broadcasting initiated in 1927, and the screening of Auguste and Louis Lumière moving pictures in Bombay initiated during the July of 1895 —is among the oldest and largest media of the world. Indian media—private media in particular—has been free and independent throughout most of its history. The period of Emergency in India (1975–1977), declared by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was the brief period when India's media was faced with potential government retribution.

Mass Media in India
Mass media in India is that part of the Indian media which aims to reach a wide audience. Besides the news media, which includes print, radio and television, the internet is playing an increasing role, along with the growth of the Indian blogging community.

Compared with many other developing countries, the Indian press is relatively unfettered, except for obstacles in the way of setting up media companies which were part of the pre-1990 license raj. In 2001, India had 45,974 newspapers, including 5364 daily newspapers published in over 100 languages. The largest number of newspapers were published in Hindi (20,589), followed by English (7,596), Marathi (2,943), Urdu (2,906), Bengali (2,741), Gujarati (2,215), Tamil (2,119), Kannada (1,816), Malayalam(1,505) and Telugu (1,289). The Hindi daily press has a circulation of over 23 million copies, followed by English with over 8 million copies. There are several major publishing groups in India, the most prominent among them being the Times of India Group, the Indian Express Group, the Hindustan Times Group, Essel Group, The Hindu group, the Anandabazar Patrika Group, the Eenadu Group, the Malayala Manorama Group, the Mathrubhumi group, the Kerala Kaumudi group, the Sahara group, the Bhaskar group, and the Dainik Jagran group.
India has more than forty domestic news agencies. The Express News Service, the Press Trust of India, and the United News of India are among the major news agencies.

Historical Perspective of Mass Media Laws in India
Mass Media laws in India have a long history and are deeply rooted in the country’s colonial experience under British rule. The earliest regulatory measures can be traced back to 1799 when Lord Wellesley promulgated the Press Regulations, which had the effect of imposing pre-censorship on an infant newspaper publishing industry. The onset of 1835 saw the promulgation of the Press Act, which undid most of, the repressive features of earlier legislations on the subject.

Thereafter on 18th June 1857, the government passed the ‘Gagging Act’, which among various other things, introduced compulsory licensing for the owning or running of printing presses; empowered the government to prohibit the publication or circulation of any newspaper, book or other printed material and banned the publication or dissemination of statements or news stories which had a tendency to cause a furore against the government, thereby weakening its authority.

Then followed the ‘Press and Registration of Books Act’ in 1867 and which continues to remain in force till date. Governor General Lord Lytton promulgated the ‘Vernacular Press Act’ of 1878 allowing the government to clamp down on the publication of writings deemed seditious and to impose punitive sanctions on printers and publishers who failed to fall in line. In 1908, Lord Minto promulgated the ‘Newspapers (Incitement to Offences) Act, 1908 which authorized local authorities to take action against the editor of any newspaper that published matter deemed to constitute an incitement to rebellion.

However, the most significant day in the history of Media Regulations was the 26th of January 1950 – the day on which the Constitution was brought into force. The colonial experience of the Indians made them realise the crucial significance of the ‘Freedom of Press’. Such freedom was therefore incorporated in the Constitution; to empower the Press to disseminate knowledge to the masses and the Constituent Assembly thus, decided to safeguard this ‘Freedom of Press as a fundamental right. Although, the Indian Constitution does not expressly mention the liberty of the press, it is evident that the liberty of the press is included in the freedom of speech and expression under Article 19(1)(a):

Article 19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.

(1) All citizens shall have the right -
(a) to freedom of speech and expression;
(b) to assemble peaceably and without arms;
(c) to form associations or unions;
(d) to move freely throughout the territory of India;
(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and
(f) to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business. (Constitution of India

It is however pertinent to mention that, such freedom is not absolute but is qualified by certain clearly defined limitations under Article 19(2) in the interests of the public.

It is necessary to mention here that, this freedom under Article 19(1)(a) is not only cribbed, cabined and confined to newspapers and periodicals but also includes pamphlets, leaflets, handbills, circulars and every sort of publication which affords a vehicle of information and opinion:

Thus, although the freedom of the press is guaranteed as a fundamental right, it is necessary for us to deal with the various laws governing the different areas of media so as to appreciate the vast expanse of media laws. From:

Doordarshan (sometimes DoorDarshan; (Hindi:दूरदर्शन); literaly means TeleVision) is the public television broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. It is one of the largest broadcasting organisations in the world in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Recently it has also started Digital Terrestrial Transmitters.

Other English language television broadcasters from India

The Times of India

The South Asian

The Times of India (TOI) is a leading English-language broadsheet daily newspaper in India. It is owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. (The Times Group). The newspaper has the widest circulation among all English-language broadsheets in India. In 2005, the newspaper reported that (with a daily circulation of over 2.4 million) it was certified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations as the world's largest selling English broadsheet newspaper.

How the Times of India is produced

The national broadcaster in India is Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India)
Prasar Bharati is a statutory autonomous body established under the Prasar Bharati Act. The Board came into existence from 23.11.1997. The Prasar Bharati is the Public Service broadcaster of the country. The objective of public service broadcasting is to be achieved though All India Radio and Doordarshan which earlier were working as independent media units under the Ministry of I&B.

All India Radio
All India Radio (abbreviated as AIR), officially known as Akashvani (Devanagari: आकाशवाणी, ākāshavānī) (Urdu : اکاشوانی), is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India), an autonomous corporation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Established in 1936, today, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster.
All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks in the world. The headquarters is at the Akashwani Bhavan, New Delhi. Akashwani Bhavan houses the drama section, the FM section and the National service. The Doordarshan Kendra (Delhi) is also located on the 6th floor of Akashvani Bhavan.
During his regular broadcasts from the Azad Hind Radio, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose (Leader of the Indian National Army in World War II) used to refer to the pre-independence AIR as Anti Indian Radio.

Children's Television in South Africa

Cambala Investigation Agency

Toon Disney India

Southern Africa

Reporters without Borders worldwide press freedom ranking for 2007: 43rd

Mass Media in South Africa
The media of South Africa has a large and flourishing mass media sector and is the African continent's major media player. While South Africa's many broadcasters and publications reflect the diversity of the population as a whole, the most commonly used language is English, although all ten other official languages are represented to some extent or another. Afrikaans is the second most commonly used language, especially in the publishing sector.
Up until 1994, the country had a thriving Alternative press comprised of community broadsheets, bilingual weeklies and even student "zines" and xeroxed samizdat. After the elections, funding and support for such ventures dried up, but there has been a resurgence of interest in alternative forms of news gathering of late, particularly since the events of September 11, 2001.
Of course much of the history of mass media in South Africa is tied to the history of apartheid. During the apartheid era, newspapers had to apply for registration if they published more than 11 times a year. An arbitrary amount was also required before registration was approved. A history of the press in South Africa introduces many of the major themes of the history of media in the country in general. The power of the mining industry, the politics of the state and the struggle for representation by the majority of the population influence the nature of mass media in the nation. See The History of the Press in South Africa

It has been pointed out that almost all the large daily newspapers are owned by just four large media firms, which could lead to pro-Corporate bias. In addition, the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), which is the public broadcaster, is argued by many to carry a fairly strong pro-ruling party (African National Congress (ANC)) bias, especially considering the fact that the majority of its management and executive staff are either ANC members or ANC aligned.

A News Bulletin from Swaziland
The Kingdom of Swaziland is a country located in Southern Africa, centred at approximately 26o49'S, 31o38'E. It is relatively small in area, similar in size to Kuwait. Swaziland is a landlocked country, bordered by South Africa on three sides except to the east, where it borders Mozambique. The country, inhabited primarily by Bantu-speaking Swazi people, is named after the 19th century king Mswati II, from whom the people also take their name. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Swaziland is the highest in the world at 38.8%, and is much higher than that of sub-Saharan Africa overall (7.5%) and globally (1.1%).[2] Life expectancy at birth in Swaziland is little above 30 years.

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Internet Traffic Flows 2005. You will notice that Africa, particularly Southern Africa is very much 'out of the loop' when it comes to internet access on a large scale. The channels for the Net run from east to West not from North to South. Access to information is one of the great challenges for South Africa in the 21st century.

South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC)
The SABC is South Africa’s national public service broadcaster. As such, it is obliged to provide a comprehensive range of distinctive programmes and services. It must inform, educate, entertain, support and develop culture and education and as far as possible secure fair and equal treatment for the various groupings in the nation and the country, while offering world-class programming on television and radio. The SABC’s television network comprises four television channels - three of them free-to-air and the fourth pay-TV. Combined the free-to-air channels attract more than 17,5 million adult viewers daily, reaching 89% of the total adult TV-viewing population.

Television in South Africa Television is the most tightly regulated media sector in South Africa and is (along with radio) regulated by the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA). Broadcast rights, especially for television, are issued by invitation only and only two independent television broadcasters have been permitted to operate up to now. Broadcast licenses mandate percentages of local, community and educational content and broadcasters are required to include such content as a condition of their license.
As a result, there are only four free-to-air terrestrial television channels in South Africa, the South African Broadcasting Corporation's (SABC) Channels 1, 2 and 3 as well as The SABC is South Africa's state-owned public broadcaster.

More News from SABC TV
3rd Degree is a current affairs program from South Africa The Rights of the Disabled in South Africa

Children's Television in English Shown in South Africa

Hectic Nine 9

The Mysterious Cities of Gold

Pumpkin Patch

Paddington Bear


Reporters without Borders worldwide press freedom ranking for 2007: 36th

Early Media in Australia
Most material published in the first twenty years of the New South Wales colony notified soldiers, convicts and private settlers of the many rules set by the Governor. These 'government orders' were printed on a portable wooden and iron printing press that had been carried to the colony on the First Fleet. The orders were then displayed or announced aloud in public places and in churches at the compulsory Sunday services as more than half of the early colonists could not read.
In November 1800, The Royal Admiral docked in the colony carrying a transported convict, George Howe, who arrived with printing experience from the West Indies and London. These valuable skills were quickly put to work at the government press, and the colony's first locally published book, a compilation of government orders, was produced in 1802.
George Howe was also permitted to print Australia's first newspaper from a humble shed located at the rear of Government House. From 5 March 1803, the Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser was on sale as a weekly edition with four portfolio pages of official material and a limited number of private notices. In early editions of the paper, a colonist could find shipping news, auction results, crime reports and agricultural notices as well as poems, literature and religious advice. To collect local news, the editor hung a 'slip box' in front of the store where the paper was issued
News from abroad arrived on the clipper ships and was usually ten to fourteen weeks out-of-date by the time it was published.

Electronic Media in Australia The first radio "broadcast" in Australia was organised by George Fisk of AWA on 19th August 1919 where he arranged for the National Anthem to be broadcast from one building to another at the end of a lecture he'd given on the new medium to the Royal Society of NSW.(History of Radio in Australia)
Television started in Australia with the Olympic Games in Melbourne in 1956.

Media Regulation in Australia - cross ownership rules.

The major effect of the laws is to prevent the common ownership of newspapers, television and radio broadcasting licences that serve the same region. The purpose of the legislation is to encourage diversity in the ownership of the most influential forms of the commercial media: the daily press and free-to-air television and radio. The justification for the rules is that the effective functioning of a democracy requires a diverse ownership of the daily mass media to ensure that public life be reported in a fair and open manner.

Australian Communications and Media Authority
The ACMA is the government regulating body for media in Australia. Australian media ownership is one of the most concentrated in the world. The last review of media ownership in Australia (1999) found that of 12 capital city and daily papers, seven are owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation and three by John Fairfax Holdings. The West Australian and the Canberra Times are the only independently owned dailies.
One of the richest men in the world and the owner of a huge media empire, Rupert Murdoch is Australian and he began with newspapers, magazines and television stations in his native Australia, Murdoch expanded News Corp into the UK, US and Asian media markets. In recent years has become a leading investor in satellite television, the film industry, the Internet and media. News Corp is today based in New York and Murdoch became an United States citizen in 1985. He inherited newspapers from his father, legendary Australian journalist Keith Murdoch who died in 1952.

Channel Nine
One of the most popular commercial television channels in Australia.

SBS (Special Broadcasting Service)
The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is Australia's multicultural and multilingual public broadcaster. SBS is unique. Its radio and television services broadcast in more languages than any other network in the world.
Sixty-eight languages are spoken on SBS Radio. Programs in more than 60 languages are broadcast on SBS Television, and Online, SBS New Media provides text and audio-on-demand services in more than 50 languages.
SBS was established to give voice and exposure to multicultural Australia; to define, foster and celebrate Australia's cultural diversity in accordance with our Charter obligation to "provide multilingual and multicultural radio and television services that inform, educate and entertain all Australians and, in doing so, reflect Australia's multicultural society".

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australia's national public broadcaster, known previously as the Australian Broadcasting Commission. With a budget of AUD$823 million, the corporation provides television, radio and online services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia, as well as overseas through the Australia Network and Radio Australia. Through its commercial arm, ABC Commercial, the corporation runs a chain of retail outlets, selling books, audio and video recordings, and other merchandise related to its programs.
Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, it was subsequently nationalised and made a state-owned corporation on July 1, 1932, becoming the Australian Broadcasting Commission. Following this, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation effective July 1, 1983.[1] The corporation produces programmes and information services, broadcasting nationally on television, radio, and the Internet. The ABC is often referred to informally as "Aunty", the origin of this name derives directly from a nickname of the ABC's cousin, the BBC

News from ABC Western Australia, featuring the memorial service for TV personality Steve "Crocodile Hunter" Irwin.

More News from Australian TV

The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily broadsheet newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia. The newspaper's Sunday edition, The Sun-Herald, is published in tabloid format. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously-published newspaper in Australia.

The Melbourne Age
The Age is a broadsheet daily newspaper, which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854. The Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John Cooke and Henry Cooke who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, and Walter Powell. The first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The Age currently has an average weekday circulation of 196,250, increasing to 292,250 on Saturdays (in a city of 3.8 million). The Sunday Age has a circulation of 194,750.

The Australian
The Australian, also referred to as The Oz, is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia Monday through Saturday each week since 1964. The editor is Chris Mitchell, and the 'editor-at-large' is Paul Kelly. The Australian is the biggest-selling national newspaper in the country, its chief rival being the business-focussed Australian Financial Review, with weekday sales of 135,000 and Saturday sales of 305,000. These figures are substantially below those enjoyed by metropolitan dailies in the major cities. The Australian is published by the Murdoch company News Limited, which also owns the sole or most popular metropolitan daily in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane.

Australian Children's Television

Skippy the Bush Kangaroo

Play School

Mr Squiggle


Censorship can take a number of forms in relation to media today. These can be summarised as the reduced freedom of access to media, reduced freedom of expression in media, reduced multiplicities of expression in a media landscape and reduced possibilities to produce media. The traditional image of banning a book or a film is only one aspect of censorship in the world today. Being able to access multiple accounts of an event in media is important and a controlled media environment can prevent such a situation. Each of the countries discussed in this course is generally recognised as possessing a free press. However each has also banned publications, websites and manages the ownership of mass media outlets.


Australia is a federation, and responsibility for censorship is divided between the states and the federal government. The Federal Parliament has the power under the Australian Constitution to make laws relating to communications and customs. Under the communications power the federal government can regulate the broadcast media (television and radio), online services (the internet), and under the customs power, the import/export of printed matter, audiovisual recordings and computer games. However, the production and sale of printed matter, audiovisual recordings and computer games solely within Australia lies with the states.

However, to reduce duplication and ensure some national consistency, the states, territories and federal government have agreed to establish a co-operative national classification scheme. Under this scheme, the Office of Film and Literature Classification (OFLC) (a federal body) classifies works. Federal law enforces these classifications with respect to customs, and online services. (Broadcast media are not under the purview of the OFLC, but rather a separate federal agency, ACMA.)

But since the federal Parliament has no power to criminalise the domestic sale or exhibition of printed matter within the States, the States and Territories then as part of the scheme pass their own laws criminalising such sale and exhibition. However, although they have delegated their censorship responsibility in general to the Commonwealth, they reserve the legal right in specific cases to either:

  • reclassify works,
  • prohibit works that the Classification Board has allowed, or
  • allow works that the Classification Board has prohibited



The Central Board of Film Certification, the regulatory film body of India, regularly orders directors to remove anything it deems offensive, including sex, nudity, violence or subjects considered politically subversive. In 2002, the film War and Peace, depicting scenes of nuclear testing and the 11 September atrocities, created by Anand Patwardhan, was asked to make 21 cuts before it was allowed to have the certificate for release. atwardhan objected, saying "The cuts that they asked for are so ridiculous that they won't hold up in court" and "But if these cuts do make it, it will be the end of freedom of expression in the Indian media." The court decreed the cuts unconstitutional and the film was shown uncut.

In 2002, the Indian filmmaker and former chief of the country's film censor board, Vijay Anand, proposed legalizing the exhibition of explicit films in selected cinemas across the country, saying "Porn is shown everywhere in India clandestinely... and the best way to fight this onslaught of blue movies is to show them openly in theatres with legally authorised licences". He resigned within a year after taking charge of the censor board after facing widespread criticism of his moves.

In 2003, the Indian Censor Board banned the film 'Gulabi Aaina (The Pink Mirror)', a film on queer India produced and directed by Sridhar Rangayan. The censor board cited that the film was 'vulgar and offensive'. The filmmaker appealed twice again unsuccessfully. The film still remains banned in India, but has screened at numerous festivals all over the world and won awards. The critics have appluaded it for its 'sensitive and touching portrayal of marginalized community'.

In 2004, the documentary Final Solution, which looks at religious rioting between Hindus and Muslims, was banned. The film follows 2002 clashes in the western state of Gujarat, which left more than 1,000 people dead. The censor board justified the ban, saying it was "highly provocative and may trigger off unrest and communal violence". The ban was lifted in Oct.'04 after a sustained campaign.

In 2006, seven states (Nagaland, Punjab, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh) have banned the release or exhibition of the Hollywood movie The Da Vinci Code (and also the book),although India's Central Board of Film Certification cleared the film for adult viewing throughout India. In 1989, Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses was banned in India, as it was in many countries, for its purported attacks on Islam. India was the second country in the world (after Singapore) to ban the book.

South Africa

Press freedom has a chequered history in South Africa as well as a dubious current state. While some sectors of the South African media openly criticised the apartheid system and the National Party government, they were hampered by various amounts of government censorship during the years. For example, journalist Donald Woods became renowned after he fled to live in the United Kingdom in exile and expose the truth behind the death of Steve Biko, the leader of the Black Consciousness Movement. After the end of apartheid in 1994 however, censorship ended and a new constitution was enacted which has a Bill of Rights that guarantees that every citizen has the right to freedom of expression, which includes freedom of the press and media, the freedom to receive or impart information or ideas, freedom of artistic creativity, academic freedom, and freedom of scientific research. These freedoms are generally respected in practice and the press is considered relatively free. Laws concerning the media and political control over its content are generally considered to be moderate and there is little evidence of repressive measures against journalists. In consequence, South Africa is ranked joint 31st (with Australia) in Reporters Without Borders' worldwide index of press freedom 2005.

However, there has also been criticism of certain aspects of the freedom of the press in South Africa. It has been pointed out that almost all the large daily newspapers are owned by just four large media firms, which could lead to pro-Corporate bias. In addition, the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), which is the public broadcaster, is argued by many to carry a fairly strong pro-ruling party (African National Congress (ANC)) bias, especially considering the fact that the majority of its management and executive staff are either ANC members or ANC aligned. The cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad were banned in South Africa by Judge Mohammed Jajbhay on 3 February 2006.

Television is the most tightly regulated media sector in South Africa and is (along with radio) regulated by the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA). Broadcast rights, especially for television, are issued by invitation only and only two independent television broadcasters have been permitted to operate up to now. Broadcast licenses mandate percentages of local, community and educational content and broadcasters are required to include such content as a condition of their license. As a result, there are only four free-to-air terrestrial television channels in South Africa, the South African Broadcasting Corporation's (SABC) Channels 1, 2 and 3 as well as The SABC is South Africa's state-owned public broadcaster.

Since the end of Apartheid, there has been a dearth of alternative media in South Africa as most of it got incorporated into mainstream corporate media as well as government and political party organising. Some of South Africa's largest social movements and other activist organisations have an online presence of alternative blogs and activist websites. According to the social movements, the importance of these alternative media sites are that they provide a way for 'poor people to speak for themselves'.


The digital divide is the increasingly gaping void between those who are "connected", with two-way, video-rich, on-demand media being pumped into their home (or mobile device) over IP ("Internet Protocol"), and those who aren't: of the 40% of adults in the UK who don't have internet access, we reckon half of them have very negative attitudes to new media and don't see the benefit of the internet, the red button and - to a certain extent - mobile phones. A two-tier nation. Every bit as stark a divide as would be access to free health care for some and not others.

The introduction of controversial games featuring photo-realistic images, such as Mortal Kombat and Night Trap, led to calls from the British tabloid press for games to fall under the Video Recordings Act. The UK games publisher trade body ELSPA responded by introducing a voluntary age rating system in 1994. The ELSPA ratings were succeeded by PEGI in 2003. Nevertheless, although games are generally exempt from the Video Recordings Act, those depicting sexual content, or gross violence towards people or animals, must still be submitted to the BBFC for consideration. BBFC ratings are legally binding, and British law imposes stiff penalties on retailers who sell to under-aged customers. However, the Act was discovered in August 2009 to be unenforceable. The rating system is to be reviewed as part of the Digital Britain ( project.

Carmageddon, in which the gameplay involved mowing down innocent pedestrians, was the first game to be refused classification in 1997, effectively banning it. The game's publisher, SCI, had a modified version created in which the pedestrians in question were replaced by green-blooded zombies, which completed a successful appeal against the BBFC to overturn their original decision. The uncensored, unmodified version of Carmageddon was later released under an 18-certificate.

In 2002 the Io Interactive game Hitman 2: Silent Assassin was withdrawn by a number of retailers due to religious sensitivities. The area in question involved a Sikh sect that were depicted as terrorists involved in arms smuggling and assassination. It also involved a section that many Sikhs believed to closely resemble the 1984 massacre at the Amritsar temple. In 2004, the parents of a murdered 14-year-old boy blamed Manhunt as having been "connected" to the murder. It was later found not to be, as the game was found in the victim's home, rather than the killer's. Leicestershire police "did not uncover any connections to the computer game." The accusations prompted some retailers to remove the game from their shelves. Nevertheless, following this incident the sales of the game rose due to the free publicity from newspaper headlines. The sequel, Manhunt 2, released in 2007, was banned in the UK by the BBFC. On appeal to the Video Appeals Committee this ruling was overturned however the BBFC launched a successful judicial review into the VAC's decision, forcing the VAC to reconsider its judgement. On 14 March 2008, the VAC again recommended that the game be released, a position to which the BBFC have now agreed. The game now, according to is reportedly available on 29/08/2008 on all 3 consoles and is available to pre-order.

In June 2007 the PS3 game Resistance: Fall of Man was criticized for the use of Manchester cathedral as one of the games' backdrops. Sony, the publisher of the game, responded by saying "Sony Computer Entertainment Europe is aware of the concerns expressed by the Bishop of Manchester and the cathedral authorities... and we naturally take the concerns very seriously. Resistance: Fall of Man is a fantasy science fiction game and is not based on reality. We believe we have sought and received all permissions necessary for the creation of the game."

Sunday, September 19, 2010

Creating a Life in Second Life

Second Life (SL) is a virtual world with more than 2 million inhabitants. Have you wondered how presence and identity in a virtual world might work? This course will go through everything from avatar (the virtual representation of you) creation to buying land and starting a business. We'll look at how to be in Second Life, and look at examples spanning from virtual art to real business.

What is Second Life?

Second Life (SL) is a virtual world developed by Linden Lab that launched on June 23, 2003, and is accessible on the Internet. A free client program called the Viewer enables its users, called Residents, to interact with each other through avatars. Residents can explore, meet other residents, socialize, participate in individual and group activities, and create and trade virtual property and services with one another, or travel throughout the world (which residents refer to as "the grid"). Second Life is for people aged 18 and over, while Teen Second Life is for people aged 13 to 17.

Built into the software is a three-dimensional modeling tool based around simple geometric shapes that allows a resident to build virtual objects. This can be used in combination with the Linden Scripting Language which can be used to add functionality to objects. More complex three-dimensional sculpted prims (colloquially known as "sculpties"), textures for clothing or other objects, and animations and gestures can be created using external software. The Second Life Terms of Service provide that users retain copyright for any content they create, and the server and client provide simple digital rights management functions.

More on What is Second Life

Virtual Worlds....What's the Deal?
Virtual worlds are three dimensional mediated representations of spaces and places that are distributed and stored over the Internet. Virtual worlds are shared or single user and are persistent (meaning the contents do not disappear when the user logs-out, but rather continues to change and develop). The social aspects of virtual worlds are important, and Second Life is perhaps the most social or all the virtual worlds.

Scalable City; an example of a virtual world as an artistic project. Scalable City creates an urban/suburban/rural environment via a data visualization pipeline. Each step in this pipeline builds upon the previous, amplifying exaggerations, artifacts and the patterns of algorithmic process. The results of this are experiences such as prints, video installations and interactive multi-user games and virtual environments.

Throughout these artworks, a variety of computer concept buzzwords take on physical form. Wallowing in them provides equal measures of delight and foreboding, creating a vision of cultured forms that we are rapidly creating. The project neither indicts nor embraces this future, but offers an extrapolation of its algorithmic tendencies, heightening one's awareness of the aesthetics of the underlying logic as it becomes the determinant of much of our cultured existence.
A virtual world can be many things. A book can be a virtual world, as can a game, a nightclub or a favorite holiday spot (e.g. Disneyland). The specific type of virtual world we are dealing with in this course is:

* Online: therefore it is shared by multiple users, is social with potential for economic and and commercial applications.

* Persistent (it does not close down just because you log off)

* Embodied (spatial, temporal, designed) in that it occupies a conceivable arrangement of space and time (usually similar to the one/s we experience in day to day life here on Earth)

* Enables user creation (you can make and change stuff in it) and is therefore a source of and a site for artistic endeavor.

* Is three (and often two) dimensional and therefore navigable (i.e. ‘you’ can move around)

* Avatar centric (you need some sort of representative construction to interact in and with the world) and these avatars are mini-worlds in themselves often involving in more complex worlds such as Second Life scripting, costumes, media and gestures. An avatar can be defined as “the “object” representing the embodiment of the user. The term “avatar” can also refer to the personality connected with the screen name, or handle, of an Internet user.” (Wikipedia)

* Often simulative which allows for many users beyond the purely social, artistic or game orientated. A virtual world with simulative capabilities can be used for business (advertising, product research, branding, opinion), academic research, experimentation and activism.

A number of themes emerge in relation to virtual worlds. The blog Massively was set as a text for this lecture to give some idea of the scope and dimension of contemporary Massive MultiPlayer Online (MMO) worlds in terms of culture and development. The themes which emerge from the Meadows readings that I want to discuss today are:

* Point of View
“These dimensionally different avatars have dimensionally different points of view, too, each giving a different perspective on the narrative in which they are involved. This is an important distinction and allows for a kind of taxonomy for avatars.” (Mark Meadows, I Avatar, 20)

Perspective in multimedia 3D virtual worlds is not just visual but is created from audio, architectural, spatial and of course visual elements. Being able to detach hearing from the avatar and have it attached to the camera and then zoom around in the space while the avatar interacts at ground level through chat or voice is one example of the complex assemblage of perspectives that is possible in some MMOs. Point of View, as Meadows suggests, is very interwoven with concepts of identity. How identity is formulated with the multiple possibilities for presence in MMOs is a large area for consideration.

* Real/Virtual
The popular distinction between ‘virtual’ and ‘real’ can be confusing and even misleading at times. The extreme sense of realism that is possible with rapid digital media technology has created the conditions for a range of descriptions concerning ‘virtual reality’, ‘cyberspace’, the ‘blogosphere’ and so on. These terms suggest that when people interact with these media they go somewhere else. This is clearly not the case, and the fact that people need to have a well grounded understanding of contemporary culture and media to enjoy such media as Second Life suggests that they are not leaving reality when consuming them. Computer games, online worlds and others in which avatars are important, communication in real time and environments immersive, should be thought of as mediated experiences.

Examples which provide insight into the tensions between the concepts of real and virtual include:

* Virtual Money: Money exists in Second Life and other MMOs. Objects in world can be brought and sold. Wages can be earned and services paid for. Real people make real livings from working in world. An example of how virtual property is treated as real is a Dutch teenager being arrested for allegedly stealing virtual furniture from "rooms" in Habbo Hotel, a 3D social networking website. The 17-year-old was accused of stealing 4,000 euros (£2,840) worth of virtual furniture, bought with real money. "It is a theft because the furniture is paid for with real money" Sulake spokesman BBC

Second Life has its own economy and a currency referred to as Linden Dollars (L$). This economy is independent of the Pricing, where users pay Linden Lab. In the SL economy, residents buy from and sell to one another directly, using the Linden, which is exchangeable for US dollars or other currencies on market-based currency exchanges. Linden Lab reports that the Second Life economy generated US$3,596,674 in economic activity during the month of September 2005, and as of September 2006 Second Life was reported to have a GDP of $64 Million.

In 2009 the total size of the Second Life economy grew 65% to US$567 million, about 25% of the entire U.S. virtual goods market. Gross Resident Earnings are $55 million US Dollars in 2009 - 11% growth over 2008.

* Cybersex: Sex is a major theme in many adult MMOs. Sexual interaction is common in Second Life with systems of etiquette in place regarding behaviors. Redlight Center is a MMOs built specifically for sex play and interaction.

* Global Culture
Perhaps one of the most interesting things about the current MMO phenomenon is the globalized culture which is emerging from it. Using MMOs teenagers are able to communicate with other their own age from across the world. It is now possible to visit simulated environments from history and the great capitals of the world. Millions of people visit MMOs every day, often they communicate with other people.

For more on Virtual Worlds see Eleven Terms You Need to Know to Talk Virtual Worlds

The word 'avatar' has many meanings. For the purposes of today's discussion, avatars are the physical representation of a person in a virtual world. In three-dimensional virtual worlds avatars can take numerous forms:

People and Their Avatars, from the book, Alter Ego: Avatars and their Creators by Robbie Cooper.

The avatar is the central point for life in a virtual world. An avatar (अवतार, from the Sanskrit word for "descent") is a computer user's representation of himself/herself or alter ego, whether in the form of a three-dimensional model used in computer games, a two-dimensional icon (picture) used on Internet forums and other communities, or a text construct found on early systems such as MUDs. It is an “object” representing the embodiment of the user. The term "avatar" can also refer to the personality connected with the screen name, or handle, of an Internet user. Avatars as extensions of people is illustrated by this program about virtual adultery and Second Life. Most people who are serious about virtual worlds treat avatars as people.

Starting Your Second Life
Once you have created an account in Second Life and claimed an avatar, you need to begin exploring this new world. There are different ways of doing this. I spent my first months in SL (in mid 2006) simply wondering around, sometimes walking for miles, flying over oceans without any idea of where I was going. I had no home and knew nobody. I visited empty mansions, attended film screenings, went to parties, took part in political protests, went to discos, just missed concerts by U2 and Suzzane Vega, made friends, and eventually got a job. Once I started working in SL I began meeting lots of people and making firm friendships. I got a job as an English language guide at the embassy of Sweden in SL, The Second House of Sweden. Around the same time HUMlab, where I work, brought a small parcel of land in SL and I began managing it as a space for art and research. This was the beginning of a serious involvement with SL that still is ongoing. I would like to describe a few of the stages along the way for deeper involvement in Second Life, and virtual worlds generally.

The Social
Making contact with other avatars is important if you are to find a 'place' for yourself in SL. I have met people in SL based on what they are wearing, the name of their avatar, or both being confused and lost in the same place. Be ready to talk to people. When I started in SL it was just chat, but now there is voice. The social side of SL cannot be ignored if you want to start a life in world. Find places and people who share your interests. Create a avatar profile that suits how you want to project yourself.

The profile is a way for other avatars to find out who you are, what you do, what you are interested in. The other way of providing information to others in world is through calling cards.

A calling card is an inventory-only item which is basically a shortcut in one resident's inventory that points to another resident's profile (when double-clicked). A calling card can be given by right-clicking an avatar and then selecting More -> Give Calling Card from the pie menu. If the other avatar accepts, the calling card will then appear in their inventory in the "Calling Cards" folder.

Calling cards are different from friendships in that one resident can give another their calling card without receiving one. Also, calling cards do not show if the resident is online (unless that resident is a friend) or allow tracking the resident on the world map. Calling cards of residents not as friends will not show up in the friend window either. Adding someone as a friend also gives their calling card automatically.

Calling cards are useful in that they can be used as a calling card in real life is: to remember the name of someone met. Calling cards can also be sorted into folders and then everyone in a folder can be IMed or sent items. Calling cards are also a good way to get to know people without allowing them to be able to track a resident on the map or see when they are off/online (but they can still see off/online status from the search anyway).

Fashion is very important in SL. Your avatar must look like s/he has some sense of style. This is most often linked to who you are, what you like, how you see yourself or how you would like others to see you. Not changing your avatar will lead others to assume you are either new, or not interested in the medium.

Property, Building and Ownership
In order to build in Second Life, or to have a home there, you have a couple of options. The easiest way to build things in SL is to use sandboxes. Once you have built something you can click on it and select Take and it will be kept in your inventory.

A "sandbox" is a parcel of land which has been put aside for practicing building. Much like real sandboxes and the concept of sandbox games, creativity and chaos tend to emerge. Several sandboxes exist for specific purposes — such as the Weapons Testing Sandbox — but the majority of sandboxes are simply for regular building.

Signs within each sandbox area make it clear what's allowed. Sandboxes usually have autoreturn enabled to clean themselves several times a day, so before building, look for info so you aren't caught by surprise. Since sandboxes are experimental, they may also be unstable — be sure to regularly take Inventory backups of anything that's important.

For more on Sandboxes see the Linden Wiki.

Once you have perfected building and have a group of friends you may make the next step and purchase a property in SL. This requires a payment and then a monthly fee (Tiers). Tier is not the land itself. It's your potential container to own land. Think of it like this: each land parcel is a toy block like Lego (larger parcels are bigger blocks), and tier is a box. Buying land "fills the box with blocks". For more on land tier see the wiki.

Once you own land you can build and you may want to create groups in SL. Groups are important. A group in Second Life is an organization which consists of at least two Residents.
Groups get a moderated group chat, at least two (and up to ten) roles with different abilities and are able to own land and items. Members in special roles can send notices to all group members and can create proposals where others are able to vote. Any Resident can be a member of up to 25 different groups. You can distinguish two types of groups which are
  1. Open group (might have an enrollment fee)
  2. Closed group

You can easily join open groups by searching them and pressing the Join (L$X) button in the groups info tab. In case there is no Join (L$X) button at the info tab of the group you're looking for, the group is either a closed one and you can only join when you got an invitation, or you are already a member of the group.

Working in Second Life
Once you have taken up a permanent residency in SL you may need to find a job there is order to keep up payments on your house and land. There are many types of work in SL but they can be broken down into two basic categories, (virtual) goods and services.

Making things and selling them in SL is just like the equivalent in the physical world. Cars, clothes, buildings, wigs and countless other objects are created by residents in SL and sold or given away to other residents. One thing that is not found in the physical world that are a popular consumable in SL are skins. Skins are the appearance of the avatar in terms of texture, proportions, body features and markings. Skins are made by residents and can be brought to customize the appearance of an avatar. Goods are brought and sold in SL and (for the moment) on the Xstreet market place (which seems to be closing on 6th October). Payment for goods in SL can be made in Linden Dollars or in national currencies, often using Paypal.

Services that can be payed for in SL include
Pay in SL tends to be fairly low. However, high end production of such things as skins, hair and scripted objects can cost quite a bit. Building is also a well payed occupation if you have some skill.

For the second part of this workshop we will go through some of the points raised above for each participant. By the end of the session you should be better equipped to live in Second Life.

Monday, September 13, 2010

Education Lecture One

  1. Historical background to the formation of a mass education system in the English speaking lands of the Commonwealth
  2. The structure of the education system/s in English speaking lands of the Commonwealth
For a detailed account of The History of Education in Britain.
A Brief History of Education in Britain
The earliest known schools in England date from the late sixth century. 'The conscious object of these early schools, attached to cathedrals and to monasteries, was to train intending priests and monks to conduct and understand the services of the Church, and to read the Bible and the writings of the Christian Fathers' (Williams 1961:128).
Two types of school grew up (often connected): the grammar school, to teach Latin, and the song school (which some cathedrals still have today), where the 'sons of gentlefolk' were educated and trained to sing in cathedral choirs.
'Grammar' at this time did not mean simply learning about the structure of language - that meaning did not develop until the middle ages. Rather, it was 'a preparation for reading, especially reading aloud, and was taken to involve comprehension and commentary, so that content was inseparable' (Williams 1961:129). This caused problems for the church because, while it was essential that Latin should be understood, there were concerns that students would read a wide range of Latin literature and 'pagan' philosophy. Thus it was that Pope Gregory wrote to Bishop Desiderius in Gaul (France):
'A circumstance came to our notice, which cannot be mentioned without shame, namely that you, our brother, give lessons in grammar. This news caused us such annoyance and disgust that all our joy at the good we had heard earlier was turned to sorrow and distress, since the same lips cannot sing the praises of Jove and the praises of Christ. Consider yourself how serious and shocking it is that a bishop should pursue an activity unsuitable even for a pious layman.' (quoted in Williams 1961:128)
Some idea of the curriculum of these early schools can be found in the writings of the Venerable Bede, the eighth century Northumbrian monk. In his Ecclesiastical History he notes that at Canterbury Theodore and Hadrian taught 'the rules of metric, astronomy and the computus as well as the works of the saints' (quoted in Williams 1961:129).
The King's College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and is one of the original nine English public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868. It has a very long list of distinguished former pupils, including eighteen former British Prime Ministers. Traditionally, Eton has been referred to as "the chief nurse of England's statesmen", and is often described as the most famous public school in the world.
The Harrow School
Harrow School is an independent school for boys aged 13-18. The school is located in Harrow on the Hill in the London Borough of Harrow. The school was founded in 1572 under a Royal Charter granted by Elizabeth I of England; although some have speculated that a school has existed in Harrow for much longer. It is one of the original nine English public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868. Harrow currently has approximately 800 pupils spread across 11 houses, all of whom board full-time at a cost of £26,445 per year, as of 2007. The majority of boarding houses were constructed in Victorian times, when the number of boys increased dramatically. Harrow has many notable alumni, including seven former British Prime Ministers (most notably Winston Churchill), and the first Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. In addition, 19 Old Harrovians have been awarded the Victoria Cross. The School Governors recently introduced Harrow to the international community by opening two new schools, one in Beijing, China, and Harrow International School in Bangkok, Thailand. A twelfth school house is in the early stages of development.
Although the poor had never been educated en masse, there had been parishes where exceptional provision was made, and a few able boys from poor homes had even been offered university places. But by the start of the 19th century, education was organised, like English society as a whole, on a more rigid class basis. The result was 'a new kind of class-determined education. Higher education became a virtual monopoly, excluding the new working class, and the idea of universal education, except within the narrow limits of "moral rescue", was widely opposed as a matter of principle' (Williams 1961:136).
Despite this hostility to universal education, school attendance rose significantly during the 19th century. In 1816, 875,000 of the country's 1.5m children 'attended a school of some kind for some period'. By 1835 the figure was 1.45m out of 1.75m. If this sounds fairly impressive, it should be noted that by 1835 the average duration of school attendance was just one year.
In the 1840s England had around 700 grammar schools and more than 2,000 non-classical endowed schools. The old grammar schools still largely served the upper classes and obtained their pupils from the preparatory schools.
But even here changes began to take place, led by headmasters like Butler at Shrewsbury from 1798 and Arnold at Rugby from 1824. Arnold's main aim was 'the re-establishment of social purpose, the education of Christian gentlemen' (Williams 1961:137). Butler's emphasis, however, was on the importance of passing examinations, and by the 1830s the exam system for university entrance was firmly established. While this had the effect of raising academic standards within the institutions, it also further restricted university entrance to those from a narrow social class.
In 1870 the Elementary Education Act (The Forster Act) introduced compulsory universal education for all children aged 5-13 in Britain and established school boards to oversee and complete the network of schools and to bring them all under some form of supervision.
In Wales, the 1889 Intermediate Education Act established an organised secondary system which linked the board and voluntary elementary schools with the universities, and provided for both boys and girls.
In 1917 the Lewis Report proposed a school leaving age of 14 with no exemptions, followed by attendance for at least 8 hours a week or 320 hours a year at 'day continuation' classes up to age 18. The wide-ranging Education Act of 1918 enacted most of these recommendations. It extended educational provision, raising the school leaving age from 12 to 14 and giving all young workers the right of access to day release education. The raising of the leaving age was not immediately implemented, however, and had to wait until the 1921 Act.
By the 1930s the principles of child development were beginning to influence - albeit very slowly - the style of education offered to younger pupils. Blyth (1965:40-1) distinguishes five factors which gave impetus to the developmental tradition during this period:
  • the growth of developmental psychology;
  • the writings of Dewey, especially his emphasis on the 'curricular importance of collective preparation for change, and on liberation from the traditional thought-patterns which could be regarded as undemocratic whether in the home, the school or society at large' (Blyth 1965:40);
  • the 'great wave of emancipation that characterised the years after 1918. Children were to be given the chance to be themselves at any age and in concert with their peers of both sexes' (Blyth 1965:40);
  • the growth of what is now rather loosely described as the 'welfare state';
  • the rapid growth of the concept of 'secondary education for all' officially enunciated for the Labour Party by the great socialist historian RH Tawney in 1923.
To Blyth's list we may add the following:
  • the kindergarten movement, based on Froebel's theory and practice from the 1890s onward - 'natural development', 'spontaneity' etc. This had been adapted to the Board Schools' drill practice in an extremely mechanistic manner, so losing its educative significance;
  • the work of Dr Maria Montessori in the early 1900s, with its emphasis on structured learning, sense training and individualisation. Its main impact was in infant schools, especially middle class private schools;
  • Margaret and Rachel McMillan and their emphasis on improving hygienic conditions, overcoming children's physical defects, and providing an appropriate 'environment' for young children;
  • What Is and What Might Be published by ex-Chief Inspector of Elementary Schools Edmund Holmes in 1911. This was 'the first striking manifesto of the "progressives" in its total condemnation of the arid drill methods of the contemporary elementary school' (Galton, Simon and Croll 1980:34);
  • Susan Isaacs' two books of 1930 and 1933 on the intellectual and social development of children.
The 1944 Education Act established the Tripartite System of grammar schools, secondary modern schools and Secondary Technical Schools. Following the Second World War a system of comprehensive schools was gradually introduced in Britain. In 1974 the Tripartite System was replaced by the Comprehensive System. A comprehensive school is a state school that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude. Today 90% of students attend comprehensive schools in Britain.
The school leaving age was raised to 16 in 1971.
Public schools in the United Kingdom and much of the Commonwealth, are independent secondary schools funded by a combination of endowments, tuition fees and other non-governmental funding. In Australia public schools are called private schools. Independent school is another name used.
The school and university system of England was established in all of the colonial possessions. The first school was set up in Australia in 1789, the year after colonisation began. In India education was in the first century of colonisation was restricted to the rich and the colonial administrators. After 1854 the British administration introduced a system of education from primary school to university, including teacher education institutions, because they became aware that education could be a prime tool for maintaining its hold on India and also a source of social change. However, participation by Indians in administrative matters was limited. In India the education of Indians by the colonial power eventually provided the leaders of independence movements, Ghandi was educated in England ( University College London) as was Nehru (Harrow, Cambridge University). Education was used to both insill the values desired by the colonial powers and to train those that could run the business of empire in its every corner. The (most likely unintended) effect of such a system of education was to furnish the subjects of the Empire with the means of its downfall, in the lawyers, politicians, teachers and philosophers that were educated in its schools.
Schools played an important part in the colonial experience in South Africa. In 1839 an Education Department was established at the Cape with a superintendent, James Rose Innes, at its head. This position was bureaucratised with an administrative apparatus by the end of this century. In Natal, after annexation in 1843, attempts were made to develop an education structure. These only stabilised in 1858. Meanwhile, constitutional provision was made for education in the Transvaal Republic in 1858 and properly so in 1863 in the Orange Free State. Important about this period is that it marks the institutionalization of education in Southern Africa and its formal deployment in the cause of building a white identity.
In the England of the Empire it was also the tradition in upper middle class and upper class families which possessed land and wealth that the oldest son take over the property, the next oldest son to join the army and the third to enter the ministry and take vows as a priest. Women were generally regarded as the inferior companions to the men who filled the roles dictated by tradition, and they did not go to school, or own property in the majority of cases, although there were exceptions. Most women had little choice but to marry and upon doing so everything they owned, inherited and earned automatically belonged to their husband. This meant that if an offence or felony was committed against her, only her husband could prosecute. Furthermore, rights to the woman personally - that is, access to her body - were his. Not only was this assured by law, but the woman herself agreed to it verbally: written into the marriage ceremony was a vow to obey her husband, which every woman had to swear before God as well as earthly witnesses. Not until the late 20th century did women obtain the right to omit that promise from their wedding vows. Education was most often simply denied to women completely, that is outside the domestic and basic economic eduction that was considered necessary to run the household. (See Women's Status in 19th Century England.
The present school system in England has its beginnings in the middle ages, although the majority of reforms and implementations come from the twentieth century. The history of education in England can be traced back to the Anglo-Saxon settlement of England, or even back to the Roman occupation. During the Middle Ages schools were established to teach Latin grammar, while apprenticeship was the main way to enter practical occupations. Two universities were established: the University of Oxford (1096), followed by the University of Cambridge (1209). A reformed system of "free grammar schools" was established in the reign of Edward VI (1537-1553) of England.
Tom Browns School Days (1971)
Tom Brown's Schooldays is a novel by Thomas Hughes first published in 1857. The story is set at Rugby School, a public school for boys, in the 1830s. Hughes attended Rugby School from 1834 to 1842. The novel was originally published as being "by an Old Boy of Rugby", and much of it is based on the author's experiences. Tom Brown is largely based on the author's brother, George Hughes; and George Arthur, another of the book's main characters, is based on Arthur Penrhyn Stanley. The fictional Tom's life also resembles the author's in that the culminating event of his school career was a cricket match.
Eduction in South Africa
Education expenditures: 5.4% (2006)
The opening moment of formal education in South Africa coincides with the foundation of the colonial experience at the Cape in 1652. Six years after the Dutch East India Company established its colony at the Cape, the first school is begun in 1658. This school was founded by Commander Jan van Riebeeck for the slave children brought to the Cape in the Dutch ship, the Amersfoort, which had captured them off a Portuguese slaver.
The establishment of an extensive system of education begins with the period of British rule at the Cape. This period was marked by a systematic attempt on the part of the British to anglicise Cape society. The period beginning with the occupation of the Cape by the British in 1795 ushers in important social, political and economic developments. The slave trade is abolished in Britain in 1807 and slavery is formally abolished in all colonies of the British Empire, including the colony at the Cape, in 1833. The period is marked by the emergence of colonialism proper.
Schools played an important part in this experience. In 1839 an Education Department was established at the Cape with a superintendent, James Rose Innes, at its head. This position was bureaucratised with an administrative apparatus by the end of this century. In Natal, after annexation in 1843, attempts were made to develop an education structure. These only stabilised in 1858. Meanwhile, constitutional provision was made for education in the Transvaal Republic in 1858 and properly so in 1863 in the Orange Free State.
Education under Apartheid
The Bantu Education Act
The Bantu Education Act (No. 47) of 1953 widened the gaps in educational opportunities for different racial groups. Two of the architects of Bantu education, Dr. W.M. Eiselen and Dr. Hendrik F. Verwoerd, had studied in Germany and had adopted many elements of National Socialist (Nazi) philosophy. The concept of racial "purity," in particular, provided a rationalization for keeping black education inferior. Verwoerd, then minister of native affairs, said black Africans "should be educated for their opportunities in life," and that there was no place for them "above the level of certain forms of labour." The government also tightened its control over religious high schools by eliminating almost all financial aid, forcing many churches to sell their schools to the government or close them entirely.
Christian National Education supported the NP program of apartheid by calling on educators to reinforce cultural diversity and to rely on "mother-tongue" instruction in the first years of primary school. This philosophy also espoused the idea that a person's social responsibilities and political opportunities are defined, in large part, by that person's ethnic identity. The government also gave strong management control to the school boards, who were elected by the parents in each district.
Official attitudes toward African education were paternalistic, based on trusteeship and segregation. Black education was not supposed to drain government resources away from white education. The number of schools for blacks increased during the 1960s, but their curriculum was designed to prepare children for menial jobs. Per-capita government spending on black education slipped to one-tenth of spending on whites in the 1970s. Black schools had inferior facilities, teachers, and textbooks.
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The Levels of the South African Education System
Under the South African Schools Act of 1996, education is compulsory for all South Africans from age 7 (grade 1) to age 15, or the completion of grade 9. General Education and Training also includes Adult Basic Education and Training.

''The Languages of South Africa''
South Africa is a multilingual country. Besides the 11 officially recognised languages, scores of others - African, European, Asian and more - are spoken here, as the country lies at the crossroads of southern Africa. The country's Constitution guarantees equal status to 11 official languages to cater for the country's diverse peoples and their cultures. These are:
Other languages spoken in South Africa and mentioned in the Constitution are the Khoi, Nama and San languages, sign language, Arabic, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Portuguese, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telegu and Urdu. There are also a few indigenous creoles and pidgins. English is generally understood across the country, being the language of business, politics and the media, and the country's lingua franca. But it only ranks joint fifth out of 11 as a home language.
About Education in South Africa
According to the Bill of Rights contained in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996), everyone has the right to a basic education, including adult basic education and further education, which the State, through reasonable measures, must progressively make available and accessible. The General Education and Training (GET) level of education is compulsory in South Africa. At almost 5,5% of gross domestic product, South Africa has one of the highest rates of government investment in education in the world. Formal education in South Africa is categorised according to three levels – General Education and Training (GET), Further Education and Training (FET) and Higher Education (HE). The GET band consists of the Reception Year (Grade R) and learners up to Grade 9, as well as an equivalent Adult Basic Education and Training (Abet) qualification. Following the completion of grade 9 the compulsory portion of education is complete. The FET band consists of grades 10 to 12 in schools and all education and training from the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) levels 2 to 4 (equivalent to grades 10 to 12 in schools), and the N1 to N6 in FET colleges. The HE band consists of a range of degrees, diplomas and certificates up to and including postdoctoral degrees. These levels are integrated within the NQF provided by the South African Qualifications Authority (Saqa) Act, 1995 (Act 58 of 1995). By mid-2006, the South African public education system had 12 million learners, 366 000 educators and about 28 000 schools, including 390 special-needs schools and 1 000 registered private schools. Of all schools, 6 000 were high schools (grades 7 to 12) and the rest were primary schools (grades 1 to 6). Some of the oldest schools in South Africa are private church schools that were established by missionaries in the early nineteenth century. The private sector has grown ever since. After the abolition of apartheid, the laws governing private education in South Africa changed significantly. The South African Schools Act of 1996 recognises two categories of schools: "public" (state-controlled) and "independent" (which includes traditional private schools and schools which are privately-governed.) Schools previously called semi-private or model C schools are not private schools, as they are ultimately state-controlled.
In 2003, a consortium of 10 Port Elizabeth, South African township schools came together to form Active Schools. Active Schools functions as a small association of primary and secondary schools from communities of extreme need whose leaders have banded together to foster various school enrichment, community outreach, and critical student feeding programs. The organization, despite paltry funding and operating in the most challenging of social and physical environments, has endeavored to create safe and secure learning centers that can serve as inspiring models for disadvantaged schools everywhere.
Inside the School Room:
The Eastern Cape of South Africa is one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. Many families cannot even afford to give their children a good education. A 14-year-old-boy gives his own account of what it means to get a good education.
Education expenditures: 4.5% (2005)
History of Education in Australia
Australia was initially settled as a penal colony for criminals from England, Ireland and Scotland. Originally the Church of England, claiming to be the established church, assumed responsibility for the education of the new colonists. This was challenged by the Presbyterian and Roman Catholic Churches who had a large number of adherents among the colonists. Following intense disagreements in the early years of settlement, by various religions claiming responsibility for education, each colony between 1872 and 1895 passed the "free, compulsory and secular" Education Acts which stopped most financial assistance to church schools and made primary education a state responsibility. However, the Catholic Church established its own education system.
Education in Australia is primarily the responsibility of states and territories. Generally, education in Australia follows the three-tier model which includes primary education (primary schools), followed by secondary education (secondary schools/high schools) and tertiary education (universities and/or TAFE (Technical and Further Education Colleges). Education is compulsory up to an age specified by legislation; this age varies from state to state but is generally 15-17, that is prior to completing secondary education. Post-compulsory education is regulated within the Australian Qualifications Framework, a unified system of national qualifications in schools, vocational education and training (TAFE) and the higher education sector (university). The academic year in Australia varies between states and institutions, but generally runs from late January until mid-December for primary and secondary schools and TAFE colleges, and from late February until mid-November for universities.
University Doctoral Degree
Masters Degree
Graduate Diploma

Graduate Certificate
Bachelor Degree (with Honours)
Bachelor Degree
Tertiary Education TAFE Associate Diploma
Advance Certificate
Private Education & Training Associate Diploma
Advance Certificate
Certificate (Business, Computer)
Senior Colleges Year 11-12
Senior High School Year 11-12
Secondary Education Junior High School Year 7/8 - 10
Primary Education Primary School Year 1-6
''Non-government Schools in Australia''
Private schools are one of two types of school in Australia, the other being government schools (state schools). Whilst private schools are sometimes considered 'public' schools (as in the Associated Public Schools of Victoria), the term 'public school' is usually synonymous with a government school. Private schools in Australia may be favoured for many reasons: prestige, and the social status of the 'old school tie'; better quality physical infrastructure and more facilities (eg. playing fields, swimming pool, etc.), higher-paid teachers; and/or the belief that private schools offer a higher quality of education. Some schools offer the removal of the purported distractions of co-education; the presence of boarding facilities; or stricter discipline. Public schools are more affordable and have less strict clothing codes. Private schools in Australia are still government funded, although they are also more expensive than government schools. Private schools may have a greater focus on sports and other associations than public schools. The GPS schools in New South Wales and Queensland were established to promote certain sports perceived to be elite within these schools. Unlike most public schools, most Australian private school students are subject to strict dress codes - for example, a blazer for boys. There are two main categories of private schools in Australia: Catholic schools and Independent schools.
Catholic Schools
Catholic schools form the second largest sector after government schools, with around 21% of secondary enrolments. Most Australian catholic schools belong to a system like government schools, are typically co-educational, and attempt to provide Catholic education evenly across the states. These schools are also known as 'systemic'. Systemic Catholic schools are funded mainly by state and federal government and have low fees. There are also a substantial number of independent Catholic schools, often single-sex, usually run by established religious orders, such as the Sisters of Mercy, Marist Brothers or the Christian Brothers. Independent Catholic school fees vary, ranging from low to high. However, fees are typically lower than that of Independent schools, and fee concessions for Catholic families facing financial difficulty are quite common. Catholic schools, both systemic and independent, proclaim strong religious motivations and most often the majority of their staff and students will be Catholics.
Independent Schools
Independent schools make up the last sector and are the most popular form of schooling for boarding students. Independent schools are non-government institutions that are generally not part of a system. Although most are non-aligned, some of the best known independent schools also belong to the large, long-established religious foundations (Anglican, Uniting Church, Presbyterian) but in most cases they do not insist on their students’ religious allegiance. These schools are typically viewed as 'elite schools'. Many of the ‘grammar schools’ also fall in this category. They are usually expensive schools that tend to be up-market and traditional in style. On the other hand, many independent schools are quite new, often small, and not necessarily traditional at all.
Queensland Independent Schools
An independent school is a non-government school that is governed, managed and accountable at the level of the individual school. Its governing body is autonomous. Independent schools in receipt of Commonwealth / State funding are incorporated non-profit organisations. However, some independent schools with particular church or ethnic affiliations, although constituted independently, operate within a mutually supportive school system. As might be expected from such a description, independent schools are a diverse group.
The School of the Air
The School offers a wide range of educational services and activities to isolated primary children in the southern half of the Northern Territory, the extreme north of South Australia and the south-east of Western Australia.
Education expenditures: 3.2% (2005)
Colonial India
The ideas and pedagogical methods of education during the colonial period, from 1757 to 1947, were contested terrain. The commercial British East India Company ruled parts of India from 1764 to 1858. A few eighteenth-century company officials became scholars of Sanskrit, Persian, and Tamil and promoted "Oriental" learning, which was classical, demotic learning in indigenous languages. However, they were outnumbered by "Anglicists," those who denigrated "Oriental" learning and advocated the introduction of institutions for Western learning based upon the British curriculum with English as the medium of instruction. By the early nineteenth century, when English was made the official language of government business, British policy promoted a cheap, trickle-down model for colonial education. When the British crown abolished company rule in 1858, government universities existed at Bombay (contemporary Mumbai), Calcutta (Kolkutta), and Madras (Chennai); about two thousand students studied at thirteen government colleges in all of British India, and another 30,000 students were in government secondary schools. Direct rule did not change the decision to de-emphasize primary education to provide occupational training for young Indian men who took jobs both in the lower tiers of the government and in urban, Western-style legal and medical service. Education in Colonial India
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Education in India
There are broadly four stages of school education in India, namely primary, upper primary, secondary and higher secondary(or high school). Overall, schooling lasts 12 years, following the "10+2 pattern". However, there are considerable differences between the various states in terms of the organizational patterns within these first 10 years of schooling. The government is committed to ensuring universal elementary education (primary and upper primary) education for all children aged 6-14 years of age. Primary school includes children of ages six to eleven, organized into classes one through five. Upper Primary and Secondary school pupils aged eleven through fifteen are organized into classes six through ten, and higher secondary school students ages sixteen through seventeen are enrolled in classes eleven through twelve. In some places there is a concept called Middle/Upper Primary schools for classes between six to eight. In such cases classes nine to twelve are classified under high school category. Higher Education in India provides an opportunity to specialize in a field and includes technical schools (such as the Indian Institutes of Technology), colleges, and universities. In much of India, the schooling offered by the state governments would technically come under the category of Public schools. They are Federal or State funded and have zero or very minimal fees. The other category of schools are those run and partly funded by private individuals, private organizations and religious groups, especially by the Christian missionaries. They are usually not completely privately run, being 'aided' by the government. The standard and the quality of education is quite high.Technically these would be categorized as private schools, but many of them have the name Public School appended to them, e.g., the Delhi "Public" School,Birla Vidya Mandir . Most of the middle class families send their children to such schools, which might be in their own city or far off (like Boarding schools). The medium of education is English, but as a compulsory subject, Hindi and/or the state's official language is also taught. Preschool education is mostly limited to organized neighbourhood nursery schools. These situations are more or less the same in the other countries of the Indian subcontinent (South Asia) like Nepal, Pakistan, etc.

Salaam Bombay!
(Hindi: सलाम बॉम्बे!) is a 1988 Hindi film directed by Mira Nair, and screenwritten by her longtime creative collaborator, Sooni Taraporevala. The film chronicles the day-to-day life of children living on the streets of Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay). Many many children in India do not have the chance to go to school. This film gives an insight into the life of Indian street children.

Educational Expenditure for Sweden as a percentage of GDP - 6.9% (2005)